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All-electric vehicles (EVs)

Battery electric vehicles, have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine. The vehicle uses a large traction battery pack to power the electric motor and must be plugged in to a wall outlet or chargingequipment, also called electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). Because it runs on electricity, the vehicle emits no exhaust from a tailpipe and does not contain the typical liquid fuel components.

Key Components of an All-Electric Car Battery (all-electric auxiliary): In an electric drive vehicle, the auxiliary battery provides electricity to power vehicle accessories. Charge port: The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply in order to charge the traction battery pack. DC/DC converter: This device converts higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power needed to run vehicle accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery. Electric traction motor: Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle's wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions. Onboard charger: Takes the incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to DC power for charging the traction battery. It also communicates with the charging equipment and monitors battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack. Power electronics controller: This unit manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery, controlling the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces. Thermal system (cooling): This system maintains a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics, and other components. Traction battery pack: Stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor. Transmission (electric): The transmission transfers mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels.

Electric Car Battery Costs

EV batteries undergo cycles of 'discharge' that occur when driving and 'charge' when the car's plugged in. Repeating this process over time affects the amount of charge the battery can hold. This decreases the range and time needed between each journey to charge. Most manufacturers have a five to eight-year warranty on their battery. However, the current prediction is that an electric car battery will last from 10 – 20 years before they need to be replaced.

Eventually, an electric car battery will need replacingeventually, and depending on the size (kWh), they're not exactly cheap! If the EV batteryneeds replacing and it's outside of warranty, expect to fork out anywhere between $2,000 and $12,000 in 2020 dollars.

Another thing that can diminish batteries' lifespan is using Level 3 fast-charging stations. These stations can charge the battery up to 80% in 30 minutes, but they can also overheat the battery. Carfax warns that this can affect the battery's long-term performance and longevity.

If electricity costs $0.13 per kilowatt-hour at ones home, charging an EV with a 200-mile range (assuming a fully depleted 66 kWh battery) will cost about $9 to reach a full charge.

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